European Television Memories

Third issue of open access VIEW Journal for European Television History & Culture highlights debates on how television fosters the moving borders of national memories.

VIEW issue 03 cover image

Cover image © Special collection Bibliothèque Forney

VIEW, the Journal of European Television History and Culture is the first peer-reviewed, multi-media and open access e-journal in the field of European television history and culture. It offers an international platform for outstanding academic research and archival reflection on television as an important part of our European cultural heritage. The journal is proud to present its third issue: European Television Memories. It has been guest-edited by Jérôme Bourdon & Berber Hagedoorn and is freely available at:

In the context of the fast development of memory studies, the third issue of VIEW highlights debates around the moving borders of national memories, fostered by television in the context of European history. The articles in this issue focus on the contribution of European television researchers, covering all three areas of media studies: production, text and reception. They touch upon a broad range of topics, including:

  • the reconstruction of the national past after regime changes in both Southern and Eastern Europe;
  • competing versions of the “same” past;
  • the fragile fostering of a European identity;
  • the regional/would-be national past.

The issue emphasizes the different ethnographic & historical uses of life-stories from television viewers. It hints at the possible changes to memory formation brought about by television in the post-network digital era. Finally, this issue charts the field of European television memories and suggests ways it can be researched further, both nationally and transnationally.

We wish you a pleasant and inspiring journey through European Television Memories!

Table of Contents

Editorial – Jérôme Bourdon,  Berber Hagedoorn


  1. ‘Remembering Our First TV Set’. Personal Memories as a Source for Television Audience History – Cecilia Penati
  2. “It’s just so hard to bring it to mind”: The Significance of ‘Wallpaper’ in the Gendering of Television Memory Work – Hazel Collie
  3. Martin Luther in Primetime. Television Fiction and Cultural Memory Construction in Cold War Germany – Stewart Anderson
  4. The Production of Czechoslovakia´s Most Popular Television Serial ‘The Hospital on the Outskirts’ and its Post-1989 Repeats – Petr Bednařík
  5. Parallel Stories, Differentiated Histories. Exploring Fiction and Memory in Spanish and Portuguese Television – José Carlos Rueda Laffond, Carlota Coronado Ruiz, Catarina Duff Burnay, Susana Díaz Pérez, Amparo Guerra Gómez, Rogério Santos
  6. Looking for What You Are Looking for: A Media Researcher’s First Search in a Television Archive – Jasmijn Van Gorp


  1. Television as a Hybrid Repertoire of Memory. New Dynamic Practices of Cultural Memory in the Multi-Platform Era – Berber Hagedoorn
  2. Why Should We Study Socialist Commercials? – Anikó Imre
  3. Window to the West: Memories of Watching Finnish Television in Estonia During the Soviet Period – Annika Lepp, Mervi Pantti
  4. The Life and Afterlife of a Socialist Media Friend. On the Longterm Cultural Relevance of the Polish TV Series ‘Czterdziestolatek’ – Kinga S. Bloch
  5. Chronology and Ideology. Temporal Structuring in Israeli Historical Documentary Series – Bosmat Garami
  6. Great Escapes from the Past. Memory and Identity in European Transnational Television News – Andreas Widholm
  7. Memory, Television and the Making of the BBC’s ‘The Story of Wales’ – Steve Blandford, Ruth McElroy

Publishing info

VIEW is published by the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision in collaboration with Utrecht University, Maastricht University and Royal Holloway University of London. It is supported by the EUscreenXL project, the European Television History Network and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.

Virtual Exhibitions shortlisted for FIAT/IFTA’s Archive Achievement Awards.

EUscreen’s Virtual Exhibitions entered the second round of one of the most prestigous competitions in the audio-visual archiving domain: FIAT/IFTA’s Archive Achievement Award 2013. It presents the most exciting audiovisual projects of the year and invites you to choose your favourite and vote for it.

The EUscreen Virtual Exhibitions have been shortlisted in the category Most Innovative Use of Archive. We’re most happy to say that we compete wagainst two projects that are close to us: EUscreen partners RTÉ Archives & Sound and Vision have been nominated with respectively The School Around The Corner and The Sound of the Netherlands.

Exhibiting EUscreen

To help users get the most from the EUscreen material, researchers, experts and members of its partner broadcasters and audiovisual archives have created a series of online exhibitions. They cover historical events, political debates and everyday life in Europe. Designing the VE tools has included various activities. Virtual Exhibition builder prototypes have been developed and tested incrementally in order to reflect the needs of the different users and to improve the ease of use.

The tools designed for these exhibitions allow for the insertion of multimedia materials from all the project’s content providers. The clips link back to the original items on the site, where users can find out more about them, share the links or get in touch with the providers themselves. 23 exhibitions with multiple strands have been produced in 2012. In the new EUscreenXL project, we’ll be working on pilots to get the tools ready for everyone to start creating their own exhibitions.

Archive achievements

The worldwide organisation FIAT/IFTA has been handing out Archive Achievement awards since 1994. A professional jury decides on the winners, but in certain categories voting is open for the wider audience. The votes from all over the world are collected by August 12th, 2013 and a winner will be announced on October 26th at the Archive Achievement Awards Ceremony during the 2013 FIAT/IFTA World Conference in Dubai. Enough time. we’d say to take a look at the various inspiring archival projects and to give your vote to the project you like best.

More information:

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Crossing Boundaries for AV Preservation

Screening the Future is a two-day conference with a focus on the preservation of digital media.This international conference brings together leaders in the fields of technology and research and those with a strategic responsibility for digitisation and digital preservation in the creative and cultural industries. The conference aims to navigate participants through current case studies and the latest thinking on standards and planning for the digital preservation of audiovisual assets.

Screening the Future 2013

May 7-8, London, Tate Modern.

For thirty years (or more in some cases) institutions and individuals have been producing sound and moving image content digitally, whether born digital or converted from analogue sources. What is the range of all this content? Are there common solutions to preservation questions? Can we find and share solutions by bringing together communities of practicefrom as wide a range as possible?

PrestoCentre is a non-profit organisation set up specifically to support audiovisual preservation any way it can. It promotes activities to support nine av preservation-connected communities:
  1. Artists and Art Museums
  2. Music and Sound Archives
  3. Video Production and Post-Production
  4. Footage Sales
  5. Film Production and Collection
  6. Research
  7. Education
  8. Broadcasting
  9. Personal collections.
The annual showcase by PrestoCentre takes place from May 7-8 at the Tate Modern, London, UK. Visit the conference website ( to find out more about the programme and speakers. The Tate venue should attract the notice of the Art and Art Museum community, but the conference has a wider programme and a wider ambition: to bring all these communities to one place (and time) so they can help each other out.

“Meet someone you don’t know – with problems you do know”

Key Topics of the conference include:

  • Sector-based responses to the changing technological nature of media assets in our collections and archives
  • Sector-based trends in preservation technology
  • Institutional responses to how collection and preservation mandates are realised and stretched by the digital
  • Media preservation as a sound investment; new methodologies for valuing our media assets
  • The psychology of preservation; our motivations and dynamics in practice
  • Maintaining a vision in a culture of operational alliances and partnerships
  • Acknowledging and advocating for difference; understanding the impact of sector-based and institutional distinction on preservation strategies and solutions

Featured Speakers include:

  • Matthew Addis (Arkivum Ltd.)
  • Sam Gustman (USC Digital Repository and Shoah Foundation)
  • Rob Hummel (Group 47, LLC.)
  • Michael Moon (GISTICS Inc.)
  • Kara van Malssen (AudioVisual Preservation Solutions)
  • Mark Schubin (SMPTE Fellow)
  • John Zubrzycki – conference chair (British Broadcasting Corporation)

The Early Bird Registration for the Screening the Future 2013 Conference has been extended until April 15. Don’t miss your last chance to benefit from this discount and register now at For more information about the conference and registration please visit:

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Call for Papers on the Hidden Professions of Television

Television Transmitter Van 1954

Picture shows a transmitter van on a remote site in the heart of the West Country. Publisher / Broadcaster: BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). Broadcast date: 01/01/1954.

VIEW, the Journal of European Television History and Culture,  is the first peer-reviewed multimedia e-journal in the field of television studies. The theme of the fourth issue is Hidden Professions of Television, which can be interpreted broadly within the European television context. The issue seeks to shine a light on the ‘behind the scenes’ activities of television and their hidden, often unrecognised and uncelebrated personnel and processes.

Call for Papers: Hidden Professions of Television

VIEW Journal of European Television History and Culture, Vol. 2, Issue 4
Deadline for abstracts: May 1st, 2013

Offering an international platform for outstanding academic research on television, VIEW has an interdisciplinary profile and acts both as a platform for critical reflection on the cultural, social and political role of television in Europe’s past & present and as a multimedia platform for the circulation and use of digitized audiovisual material. The journal’s main aim is to function as a showcase for the creative and innovative use of digitised television materials in scholarly work and to inspire a fruitful discussion between audiovisual heritage institutions (especially television archives) and a broader community of television experts and amateurs. In offering a unique technical infrastructure for a multimedia presentation of critical reflections on European television, the journal aims at stimulating innovative narrative forms of online storytelling, making use of the digitized audiovisual collections of television archives around Europe.

For the issue on Hidden Professions or Television, we welcome contributions that may engage across a wide range of selected organisational, administrative or technical activities that have played their understated, invisible parts in the historical formation of television: from aspects of TV continuity for instance, to television outside broadcast management, TV retailing or manufacture, television music or the TV weather forecast. These indicate some of the gaps that this issue seeks both to fill and to explore.


Proposals are invited on (but not limited to):

  • Personnel involved in all aspects of television, from technicians, production staff, editors to preservationists, administrative staff or media managers
  • ‘Behind the scenes’ activities across the whole spectrum of television broadcasting, including organizational, administrative and technical activities
  • ‘The making of’ understudied TV programmes like the weather forecast
  • Services associated to television consumption, such as TV retailing, manufacturing or repair services
  • Practices that focus on preserving the content (film, video or audio) and making it available for reuse
  • Material artifacts used in television production or post-production

Submission info

  • Contributions are encouraged from authors with different kinds of expertise and interests in television broadcasting, from researchers to television professionals, to archivists and preservationists.
  • Contributions can be in the form of conventional articles, illustrated commentaries or photo-essays.
  • Paper proposals (max. 500 words) are due on May 1st, 2013. Submissions should be sent to the managing editor of the journal, Dana Mustata.
  • Articles (2-4,000 words) will be due on September 1st, 2013.
  • For further information or questions about the issue, please contact Tim O’Sullivan and Andy O’Dwyer, guest editors on this issue.

Hidden professions on EUscreen

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Citing Films, Television and Audio in your Content – Could it be Easier?

In the era of YouTube, podcasts and vidcasts new pioneering guidelines, launched today, will be crucial for students, researchers and academics when they cite moving image and sound sources, or provide advice on referencing them.

The British Universities Film & Video Council’s (BUFVC) guidelines respond to the 2011 Jisc report, Film and Sound in Higher and Further Education: A Progress Report with Ten Strategic Recommendations. The report found that despite the exponential increase in the use of audiovisual material in teaching, learning and research in higher and further education, existing guidelines for the referencing of moving image and sound are often insufficient as they are based on standards developed for the written word. This has the effect of discouraging the citing of moving image and sound, as well as creating barriers in its discovery, use and re-use.

Best Practice

Professor John Ellis, professor of media arts, University of London, says: Citation exists so that you can find the source of any quotation. The rules have long since been worked out for print sources. However, for moving image and sound, no-one quite knows what to do, so references are usually imprecise and sometimes left out completely. This guide now makes it possible for any writer (even a student) to lead their readers to the exact audiovisual source they are discussing. It might seem a simple problem to solve, until you realise that there are a multitude of different types of audiovisual source!

The guidelines are practical, accessible and applicable to a wide range of different users across all disciplines. They encourage best practice in citing any kind of audiovisual item. They cover film; television programmes; radio programmes; audio recordings; DVD extras; clips; trailers; adverts; idents; non-broadcast, amateur and archive material; podcasts; vodcasts and games.

Professor Miles Taylor, director, Institute of Historical Research, University of London, says: The difficulty of referencing such important sources has only been compounded by the increasing availability of much of this material online. The wonderful new guide produced by the BUFVC cuts through the uncertainty and complexity and will undoubtedly encourage historians and researchers in other disciplines to make greater use of audiovisual source materials – whether a computer game, a television channel ident, a previously unaired radio programme or a Hollywood film. I strongly encourage journal editors in particular to add it to the guidance that they provide for authors.

Academic Working Group

To produce these guidelines, BUFVC established a working group of academics, researchers, journal editors and archivists, formed as part of the HEFCE-funded Shared Services project. Richard Ranft, head of sound and vision at The British Library, says: From the beginning of the 20th century, sound and moving image media in all their various formats have captured the most significant moments in human creativity and endeavour. Yet even in the present century, there remains doubt over the validity of referencing sound and moving images, whether in academic publishing or the popular media, due in part to the absence of accepted citation guidelines. By establishing clear instructions that are on a par with traditional bibliographic citation styles, this new publication will help unlock the vast resource that is preserved in sound and moving image archives.

This is the first edition of the guidelines and it will be reviewed periodically to respond to advances in technology, the development of new media platforms and the needs of the user. The BUFVC welcomes comments and feedback via, or join the discussion by tweeting @bufvc #AVcitation

An interactive version of the guidelines is available to download from the BUFVC website:


Guidelines to Properly Cite Audiovisual Productions

In the era of YouTube videos, podcasts, adverts, off-air recordings and DVD extra features, it is crucial for students, researchers and academics to be able to cite these sources properly. The BUFVC’s AV Citation Guide brings together academics, archive historians, journal editors and researchers to address the complexities of audiovisual citation.

The AV Citation Project

In an exciting initiative, the BUFVC has brought together academics, archive historians, journal editors and researchers to address the complexities of audiovisual citation. As part of the HEFCE-funded Shared Services project, this working group is currently producing a series of guidelines to enable the citation of a range of audiovisual sources for teaching, learning and research. The guidelines are being created for two purposes: to provide sensible, clear and practical uniform ground rules for the citation of audiovisual material and to ensure that all audiovisual material referenced and used in research and higher education can subsequently be found by others.

Current Citation Practice

Existing guidelines for audiovisual resources are modelled on standards established for text-based sources. They frequently privilege the author, a practice that is unsatisfying when applied to a great deal of audiovisual material. In the era of YouTube videos, podcasts, adverts, off-air recordings and DVD extra features it is crucial for students, researchers and academics to be able to cite these kinds of sources according to what is useful rather than simply the title, author, date and publisher. Useful information for audiovisual sources may include detail on date uploaded or created, version, format, date accessed, chapters, URL or point of access, and owner of material.

These guidelines don’t equal a catalogue record or a database entry. As with any source, you can find out a great deal about audiovisual material which does not need to be included in a straightforward citation. Digital records often include extensive metadata such as catalogue numbers, length of the footage in feet, the date of the original footage, when it was digitised, related items in the series and if it has been broadcast since its original transmission. This is important information, yet including all of this in a citation is not appropriate or practical.

Project Status

Following a survey of existing guidelines on AV citation the working group, led by Dr Sian Barber, is now producing a set of new guidelines to offer a practical approach to this tricky problem. Once finalised, the guidelines will be thoroughly tested and incorporated into the final template. Rigorous enough to provide all the necessary information for referencing purposes and yet flexible enough to allow for the citation of material as diverse as YouTube videos, radio programmes and lecture podcasts, the guidelines will be made freely available in March 2013.

More information

Have you ever wondered how to cite a TV advert? Or extra features on a DVD? What about a scene from a director’s cut feature film or amateur film footage held in an archive? Or how do you ensure that those writing for your journal provide enough information on the resources they have used? How can you give the best advice to students and how do you make sure that your own resources are being correctly cited?

Open Video Make Session at the OKFest

Open Video Workshop Poster

On September 18th, 2012, Sanna Marttila, Kati Hyyppä and Ramyah Gowrishankar (Aalto University) organised the Open Video Make Session in Helsinki as a part of EUscreen and the Open Culture and Science Hackday of the Open Knowledge Festival.

Report by Kati Hyyppä, Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture.

The hackday included various activities involving working with and building things with open cultural and scientific data. The Open Video Make Session focused on video as a rich resource for creative use. Despite recent technical developments such as Popcorn, it’s still rather complex to take video to the next level: beyond traditional remixing.

Programming skills are usually needed for making use of temporal and spatial video characteristics and metadata. Combining video with other content, such as open data, also has unexplored potential. In order to tackle these challenges and to promote new uses for audiovisual materials in the cultural heritage domain, about 10 experts from different fields were invited to the Open Video Make Session to open up video as an exploratory medium. The session was open for anyone to join in, either to make something or to see experts at work and to learn more about open video.

The Open Video Make Session provided insights into the different dimensions of archival video that can serve as inspiration for creative works. While some participants focused on mood and storytelling, others utilized audio, visual details, timeline and APIs. You can find documentation of the projects made in the session here: Open Video Make Session projects (currently being updated).

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