Citing Films, Television and Audio in your Content – Could it be Easier?

In the era of YouTube, podcasts and vidcasts new pioneering guidelines, launched today, will be crucial for students, researchers and academics when they cite moving image and sound sources, or provide advice on referencing them.

The British Universities Film & Video Council’s (BUFVC) guidelines respond to the 2011 Jisc report, Film and Sound in Higher and Further Education: A Progress Report with Ten Strategic Recommendations. The report found that despite the exponential increase in the use of audiovisual material in teaching, learning and research in higher and further education, existing guidelines for the referencing of moving image and sound are often insufficient as they are based on standards developed for the written word. This has the effect of discouraging the citing of moving image and sound, as well as creating barriers in its discovery, use and re-use.

Best Practice

Professor John Ellis, professor of media arts, University of London, says: Citation exists so that you can find the source of any quotation. The rules have long since been worked out for print sources. However, for moving image and sound, no-one quite knows what to do, so references are usually imprecise and sometimes left out completely. This guide now makes it possible for any writer (even a student) to lead their readers to the exact audiovisual source they are discussing. It might seem a simple problem to solve, until you realise that there are a multitude of different types of audiovisual source!

The guidelines are practical, accessible and applicable to a wide range of different users across all disciplines. They encourage best practice in citing any kind of audiovisual item. They cover film; television programmes; radio programmes; audio recordings; DVD extras; clips; trailers; adverts; idents; non-broadcast, amateur and archive material; podcasts; vodcasts and games.

Professor Miles Taylor, director, Institute of Historical Research, University of London, says: The difficulty of referencing such important sources has only been compounded by the increasing availability of much of this material online. The wonderful new guide produced by the BUFVC cuts through the uncertainty and complexity and will undoubtedly encourage historians and researchers in other disciplines to make greater use of audiovisual source materials – whether a computer game, a television channel ident, a previously unaired radio programme or a Hollywood film. I strongly encourage journal editors in particular to add it to the guidance that they provide for authors.

Academic Working Group

To produce these guidelines, BUFVC established a working group of academics, researchers, journal editors and archivists, formed as part of the HEFCE-funded Shared Services project. Richard Ranft, head of sound and vision at The British Library, says: From the beginning of the 20th century, sound and moving image media in all their various formats have captured the most significant moments in human creativity and endeavour. Yet even in the present century, there remains doubt over the validity of referencing sound and moving images, whether in academic publishing or the popular media, due in part to the absence of accepted citation guidelines. By establishing clear instructions that are on a par with traditional bibliographic citation styles, this new publication will help unlock the vast resource that is preserved in sound and moving image archives.

This is the first edition of the guidelines and it will be reviewed periodically to respond to advances in technology, the development of new media platforms and the needs of the user. The BUFVC welcomes comments and feedback via avcitation@bufvc.ac.uk, or join the discussion by tweeting @bufvc #AVcitation

An interactive version of the guidelines is available to download from the BUFVC website: http://bufvc.ac.uk/avcitation/guidelines.

Related

The Value of Audiovisual Archives

Try imagining all the world’s existing audiovisual material: all the films ever made, plus the television footage ever shot, plus all the sounds once recorded – add the scientific and military observations and home videos, the (super) 8 mm recordings, the YouTube generation’s creations. Then, try to visualise not the kilometers of celluloid or optical disks or hours and lifetimes it would take to see it all, but what the possible value of all those sounds and images would be.

Do they indeed, as the author of the just released report Assessing the Audiovisual Archive Market, Peter B. Kaufman, proposes, form a sort of crude oil – ready to be refined, reassembled and made into a new creative product?

In the same way that oil, pumped from the ground, is refined and then used to fuel transportation and industry, or iron, mined from the ground, is smelted into steel and used in construction, so audiovisual materials mined from the archives form part of the backbone of information, com- munication, and our creative knowledge economy, worldwide.

Assessing the Audiovisual Archive Market

Assessing the Audiovisual Archive Market: Models and Approaches for Audiovisual Content Exploitation was commissioned by PrestoCentre, the international competence centre for digital audiovisual preservation. It explores the ways that a audiovisual archives have been “examining, appreciating, and even embracing business and commercial interactions in the digital age”. The report takes a look back at 124 years of audiovisual archiving and how the challenge of preserving moving images and sounds has reached increasing levels of complexity.

This increased complexity, not in the least caused by the advent of digital production and storage methods, leads to a mirrored exchange between the access and preservation tasks of the contemporary archive: twin missions, as Kaufman calls them, that “twist around each other like the double helix of a modern memory institution’s DNA.” The paper investigates the forms and methods audiovisual archives have been approaching to fund this double mission and how they have shifted some of their attention towards possible cooperation with businesses and even taken advantage of existing commercial opportunities.

new opportunities for cultural heritage institutions to develop business models, revenue streams, and business knowledge — and in the process gain an even greater appreciation for the role they play in media, society, and our economies today — abound. This paper, focusing as it does on such opportunities, may provide activists in the field with inspiration and support.

In order to define the value of an audiovisual collection, one needs to get a clear idea about the costs involved – by mouth of one of the interviewees, the report states that “use has begun to define value”. Inversely, an item that is not well preserved, cannot be found and thus not used by anyone, ever again. The paper stresses the importance of access as a form of open access: the value that lies in use, sharing, reuse can only be realised when unrestricted online access allows participant from different online realms can use web tools to popularise and contextualise the assets. The paper intends to suggest that in the double helix between preservation and access, “support for one is support for both”.

It also underlines the need for the audiovisual archiving field that in dealing with the multi-billion dollar business partners who are currently so important for finding, exploring, discovering and buying media on the web, the field of archives and museums needs to be well aware of its value and importance, as well al the sensitivities we share and the experiences we’ve had.

No agent has been retained to represent the interests of libraries, archives, and museums, in the way an author or musician might retain one. No lawyers have been hired to pore over the body of agreements to date and highlight best practices for the community. No working group focused exclusively on improving public-private partnerships has been assembled and charged with a mission and a deadline. If the commercial sector is investing hundreds of millions of Euros, and a hundred billion are needed, we had better get started.

7 Recommendations

The report offers 7 Recommendations and proposes the development of four new tools for a smarter (re-)use of audiovisual archival content. The recommendations are:

  • Audiovisual archives should consider themselves part and parcel of the knowledge economy.
  • Audiovisual archives should recognize that multibillion-dollar businesses are growing based on materials they curate; and as a result their institutions deserve to participate in the revenue these materials are generating, in the knowhow that they are contributing, and in other direct and indirect benefits these materials are making to the world.
  • Audiovisual archives more than anything need something approximat ing an old-fashioned guild, where collective knowledge can come to rest, and where business savvy from attorneys, dealmakers, and others might be fielded and centralized.
  • The field needs to hire, in effect, an advocate — perhaps a sanhedrin of wise men and women who can look after its collective interest and help it argue on its own behalf and on behalf of the public sector.
  • When approaching business relationships, audiovisual archives should consider the arrangements from the perspective of their commercial partners, recognizing that the strongest players in the audiovisual marketplace are in the business now for the long term, making strategic rather than tactical investments in the sector.
  • Archives should recognize in particular the value of their building comprehensive metadata resources and optimizing their audiovisual resources for search and discovery.
  • In the audiovisual archive world, archives have been dealt a strong hand. They need to recognize that audiovisual material now and over time will be the most sought- after assets to monetize.

The reasoning behind these recommendations and the well-recommended, 30-page report, are available for download as a PDF in the PrestoCentre library.

Related reading

  • Economies of the Commons 3: Sustainable Futures for Digital Archives – http://ecommons.eu – Conference outcomes, November, 2012
  • EUscreen Publishes its Second Online Access to Audiovisual Heritage Status Report – http://blog.euscreen.eu/?p=3235 – July, 2012

Open Access Journal Advances Scholarship in the Field of European Television History and Culture

VIEW Journal Vol 01 Issue 02/2012

Second VIEW Journal issue

In March 2012, EUscreen launched the first issue of the Journal of European Television History and Culture – the first peer-reviewed, multi-media and open access e-journal in the field of European television history and culture. It offers an international platform for outstanding academic research and archival reflection on television as an important part of our European cultural heritage. Today, EUscreen is proud to present the second issue: Europe on and behind the Screen, which is freely available at: http://journal.euscreen.eu

Embedded audiovisual sources

This second issue comes in a brand new form, with a new title: VIEW, a fresh design and a new member in the team of editors-in-chief: John Ellis from Royal Holloway, University of London.The journal makes use of an open access publishing system, OJS, and has developed a tool to insert relevant audiovisual sources in the online reading experience. The journal also received a redesign to maximise readability. The new name, VIEW, indicates a clear vision for the future of the Journal of European Television History and Culture.

Europe on and Behind the Screen

Its second issue enables a discussion of European television through different themes, approaches and case studies. The Discovery articles zoom in on case studies from different corners of Europe, while the Explorations offer different approaches to writing Europe’s television history and advancing theoretical discussions in the field. The full table of contents for the second issue is:

Editorial – Dana Mustata

DISCOVERIES

1.    Mapping Europe: Images of Europe in the Eurovision Song Contest – Mari Pajala
2.    Spain Was Not Living a Celebration. TVE and Eurovision Song Contest during the years of Franco’s Dictatorship – Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano
3.    The Golden Stag Festival in Ceausescu’s Romania (1968-1971) – Alexandru Matei
4.    Comunicar Europa/Communicating Europe. Spain and television co-productions – Manuel Palacio & Concepción Cascajosa
5.    Zen and the Art of Adaptation – Jeremy Strong

EXPLORATIONS

1.    Live from Moscow: The Celebrations of Yuri Gagarin and Transnational Television in Europe – Lars Lundgren
2.    Reading Between The Lines. A Transnational History of the Franco-British Entente Cordial in Post War Television – Andreas Fickers & Andy O’Dwyer
3.    Transnational Relations Between The BBC And The WDR (1960-1969): The Central Roles Of Hugh Greene And Klaus Von Bismarck – Christian Potschka
4.    Poland’s Return to Europe:  Polish Terrestrial Broadcasters and TV-Fiction – Sylwia Szostak
5.    Hello, Lenin? Soviet Nostalgia on Post-Soviet Television – Kateryna Khinkulova
6.    From European Identity and Media Imperialism to Public Diplomacy: the Changing Rationale behind Euronews – Eva Polonska-Kimunguyi & Patrick Kimunguyi
7.    Télé-clubs and European Television History Beyond the Screen – Ira Wagman

As Dr. Dana Mustata from the University of Groningen, managing editor of the journal, says: “After the book A European Television History by Jonathan Bignell and Andreas Fickers, this issue on Europe on and behind the Screen is the second concerted effort on an European scale dedicated to advancing our understanding of European television.”

View, the Journal of European Television History and Culture, is published by the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision in collaboration with Utrecht University, Maastricht University and Royal Holloway University of London. With its interdisciplinary profile, the journal journal is open to many disciplinary perspectives on European television – including television history, media studies, media sociology, cultural studies and television studies. Read more about the journal.

More info

View is made possible by support from the EUscreen project and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The journal works in partnership with the European Television History Network.

 

Reminder: European TV Memories – Call for papers

Image by asleeponasunbeam

Reminder: deadline is September 6th, 2012

CALL FOR PAPERS

Journal of European Television History and Culture

Vol. 2, Issue 3: ‘European TV Memories’

The Journal of European Television History and Culture (http://journal.euscreen.eu) welcomes paper proposals for its third issue dedicated to ‘European TV Memories’ and guest-edited by Jérôme Bourdon (Tel Aviv University) and Berber Hagedoorn (Utrecht University).

The journal is the first peer-reviewed multi-media e-journal in the field of television studies. Offering an international platform for outstanding academic research on television, the journal has an interdisciplinary profile and acts both as a platform for critical reflection on the cultural, social and political role of television in Europe’s past and present as well as a multi-media platform for the circulation and use of digitized audiovisual material.

The journal’s main aim is to function as a showcase for a creative and innovative use of digitized television material in scholarly work, and to inspire a fruitful discussion between audiovisual heritage institutions (especially television archives) and a broader community of television experts and amateurs. In offering a unique technical infrastructure for a multi-media presentation of critical reflections on European television, the journal aims at stimulating innovative narrative forms of online storytelling, making use of the digitized audiovisual collections of television archives around Europe.

The theme of third issue of the journal, due for publication in April 2013, is European TV Memories. The editors welcome two kinds of contributions:

  • scholarly articles (historical, sociological or anthropological with a European focus) of 4,000 words
  • discoveries: journalistic essays (2,500 words) which include audiovisual sources as a central component andreflect on the practical challenges of doing television research in an archival or academic environment (e.g. case studies, new collections, news from archives, audio/video interviews).

European TV Memories

The phrase “European TV Memories” can be understood in many ways, of which we can suggest three:

  • Memories as remembering: memory as content actually remembered and shared (especially in contexts and events triggered by the researcher (focus groups, life stories).
  • Memories as policy: as the way the institutions of European television have tried to engineer, generate, support, and disseminate specific memories (at least, potentially, collective memories, considering the reach of the medium).
  • Memories as text: as they can be inferred from the close analysis of text as vectors of memory.

Although there is no strict correlation, different disciplines have generally focused on different understandings of memory. “Memory as text” is frequent among historians and philosophers, “memory as remembering” is analyzed by social psychologists and sociologists, while “memory as institution” is connected to a more political perspective (political sciences, but history as well).

We invite contributions across disciplines and across different conceptions of memories. Similarly, we would appreciate contributions, which study television memories beyond the genres usually emphasized in the study of memory (news and current affairs and historical programmes). TV series, advertisements, entertainment, can be considered as well.

Finally, three aspects cannot always be limited strictly to the medium of television, which interact with other medium, either “old” or “new”. The memories of news events, for a given viewer/citizen, cannot be isolated from a news culture, which includes the press, once the newsreels, today online news. The memory of cinema is built, to a large extent, through television. This is why we will invite contributors to include other media, especially new and digital media, in their analysis, although the focus should be on television.

Proposals are invited on (but not limited to) the following suggested topics:

Television as an institution of memory

  • the policies of memory in and on television
  • event memories: public/private memories of televised media events
  • commemorations and anniversaries
  • reruns and repetition
  • nostalgia programming and TV memorabilia

Preservation and erasure

  • the impact and challenges of accessing TV history and memory in the digital age, considering a.o.: online access and storage, copyright issues, open source archiving, digital contextualization, user generated data
  • the TV user as archivist
  • the future of TV memory

New cultures of remembering and forgetting (via) television

  • the impact and challenges of new and digital technologies
  • new cultures of viewing and user participation, inside the household (wallpaper memories) and outside
  • the gendering of television technologies and experiences
  • transnational TV memories

Researching television memories

  • the methodological debate: archives, life-stories, political statements

Paper proposals (500 words) are due on September 6th, 2012. Submissions should be sent to the managing editor of the journal, dr. Dana Mustata (journal@euscreen.eu). Articles (2-4,000 words) will be due on December 15th, 2012.Please consult the journal’s Author Guidelines. For further information or questions about this issue, please contact Jérôme Bourdon and Berber Hagedoorn.

Report on Semantic Interoperability with Europeana

EUscreen released a new public deliverable this week, titled Report on semantic interoperability with Europeana.

The deliverable illustrates the technical platform created to support interoperability. It describes the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), which is the chosen technology for exporting metadata items to Europeana. OAI-PMH is a low-barrier and widely used mechanism for repository interoperability. In the context of the EUscreen project, OAI-PMH provides a mechanism for interoperability between the Ingestion Tool and various other modules or platforms.

It also presents the mapping between EUscreen elements, which have been modeled on the EBUcore metadata standard, and the so-called ‘Europeana Semantic Elements’ standard maintained by Europeana. The document was written by Vassilis Tzouvaras, Kostas Pardalis, Marco Rendina and Johan Oomen.

Download the deliverable at: http://pro.europeana.eu/documents/864473/c2aff7f4-2ad4-4793-aa85-8cd3b31d93a7

EUscreen Publishes its Second Online Access to Audiovisual Heritage Status Report

Image by David Jones, 2008.

Second Status Report Released

EUscreen is pleased to announce its second status report Online Access to Audiovisual Heritage. In three chapters, the report gives an overview of technological developments bearing an influence on publishing and making accessible historical footage. The report discusses online heritage practices within Europe and beyond.

In a field that faces constant renewal, overhaul and additional challenges, the report means to take stock of the status of the online audiovisual heritage field. This allows the EUscreen project to measure our own strategies and technological development and allows the participating archives, broadcasters and the broader GLAM community to come up with solutions for providing access that cater to users’ needs and environments.

This document is a follow‐up on the first EUscreen status report, published one year ago.

Report Overview

The status report is divided into three chapters, each focusing on a different aspect of online access. Through this structure, we successively discuss three main trends regarding access, namely: 1) use and reuse today, 2) trends towards a cultural commons and 3) fundamental research in the area of audiovisual content.

The first chapter gives an overview of major developments, including access provision and use of content by the creative industries. In the second chapter we explore the topic of (sustainable) reuse of audiovisual sources as a cultural and explorative practice leading towards more open and participatory archives. Finally, the third chapter discusses European research topics that are currently ongoing in areas connected to audiovisual heritage.

The report was edited by Erwin Verbruggen and Johan Oomen and can be downloaded here.

We’re currently heading towards the final stages of the EUscreen project, which will conclude in September with the final EUscreen conference in Budapest. This status report comes at a time where the project needs to reflect on its position in the field and on its long-term sustainable future as a service for the various stakeholders.

Links

 

EUscreen releases open access Journal of European Television History and Culture

http://journal.euscreen.eu

Today, the EUscreen project releases the first peer-reviewed, multi-media and open access e-journal in the field of European television history and culture. The aim of this e-journal is to provide an international platform for outstanding research and reflection on television as an important part of our European cultural heritage.

The Journal of European Television History and Culture builds on recent digitisation initiatives in European archives and audiovisual libraries and addresses the need for critical study of the cultural, social and political role of television in Europe’s past and presence with the help of television material that has now become available at a large scale.

The first issue of the journal is a prototype, created in the open access publishing platform Open Journal Systems. The second version, due to appear in September 2012, will add important technical functionalities that will turn it into a true multimedia platform for online storytelling.

The Journal of European Television History and Culture has the ambition to speak to both the academic and the professional community but will address a larger audience interested in television as a cultural phenomenon, says Sonja de Leeuw, EUscreen’s project coordinator and editor-in-chief of the journal.

Broadcast historians, media studies scholars, audiovisual archivists, television professionals as well as the large group of enthusiastic fans of “old” television will have the opportunity to dive into the history and presence of European television by means of multi-media texts.

The journal is the result of a cooperation between the EUscreen platform and researchers from the European Television History Network (ETHN), which was launched in 2004 to promote a transnational perspective on the history and culture of television in Europe. It is published by the Utrecht University Library (Igitur publishing) in collaboration with Utrecht University, Maastricht University and Royal Holloway College / University of London and will be continued with funding from the Dutch National Research Board.

Visit http://journal.euscreen.eu to dive into Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Making Sense of Digital Sources

Links

Television Heritage on Europeana

Europeana sends out a monthly newsletter, with a hand-picked, curated overview of what’s new on the portal. This month, the newest addition on the site is EUscreen – the content of which has been made available on Europeana thanks to the hard work of our consortium partners and the Europeana upload team.

Read all about it in their newsletter:

 

 

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