EUscreenXL presents issue 04 of VIEW Journal

VIEW Journal of European Television History and Culture Vol. 2, Issue 04: The Hidden Professions of Television

VIEW Journal cover issue 04

We know little about the ‘behind the scenes’ of television. The fourth issue of VIEW provides a rich and eclectic series of contributions from which a lot can be learnt about its ‘hidden’ professions.

VIEW, the Journal of European Television History and Culture is the first peer-reviewed, multi-media and open access e-journal in the field of
European television history and culture. It offers an international platform for outstanding academic research and archival reflection on television as an important part of our European cultural heritage.

The journal is proud to present its fourth issue:
Hidden Professions of Television has been guest-edited by Andy O’Dwyer and Tim O’Sulivan and is freely available from:

The articles presented here bring under scrutiny the ‘behind the scenes’ activities of television and their hidden, often unrecognised and uncelebrated personnel and processes. They engage across a wide range of organisational, administrative and technical activities that have played their understated, often ‘invisible’ part in the historical formation and development of television. We wish you a pleasant and inspiring journey through the Hidden Professions of Television!

Table of Contents


  • Editorial – Andy O’Dwyer, Tim O’Sulivan



Happy World Television Day!

The first World Television Forum was held by the United Nations on 21 and 22 November 1996. The leading media agents met to discuss the growing significance of television in today’s changing world. Television was acknowledged as a major tool in informing, channeling and affecting public opinion. That is why the General Assembly decided to proclaim 21 November as World Television Day.

“The world today is controlled by advancements in technology. We live in a society that depends on information technology and communications to perform its daily activities, including work, entertainment, education, health care, personal relationships, travel, and many other pursuits.

Everything we experience through television shapes and influences our lives. Television educates, informs, entertains, instructs, and influences us in so many ways. The youth are greatly influenced by images and we can expect new value systems to emerge among them.” [United Nations]


This year, three European broadcasters’ associations have decided to organize the World TV Day :

egta association of television and radio sales houses

The Association of Commercial Television in Europe (ACT)

The European Broadcasting Union (EBU)  which is one of the EUscreen Project Partners



Open Access Journal Advances Scholarship in the Field of European Television History and Culture

VIEW Journal Vol 01 Issue 02/2012

Second VIEW Journal issue

In March 2012, EUscreen launched the first issue of the Journal of European Television History and Culture – the first peer-reviewed, multi-media and open access e-journal in the field of European television history and culture. It offers an international platform for outstanding academic research and archival reflection on television as an important part of our European cultural heritage. Today, EUscreen is proud to present the second issue: Europe on and behind the Screen, which is freely available at:

Embedded audiovisual sources

This second issue comes in a brand new form, with a new title: VIEW, a fresh design and a new member in the team of editors-in-chief: John Ellis from Royal Holloway, University of London.The journal makes use of an open access publishing system, OJS, and has developed a tool to insert relevant audiovisual sources in the online reading experience. The journal also received a redesign to maximise readability. The new name, VIEW, indicates a clear vision for the future of the Journal of European Television History and Culture.

Europe on and Behind the Screen

Its second issue enables a discussion of European television through different themes, approaches and case studies. The Discovery articles zoom in on case studies from different corners of Europe, while the Explorations offer different approaches to writing Europe’s television history and advancing theoretical discussions in the field. The full table of contents for the second issue is:

Editorial – Dana Mustata


1.    Mapping Europe: Images of Europe in the Eurovision Song Contest – Mari Pajala
2.    Spain Was Not Living a Celebration. TVE and Eurovision Song Contest during the years of Franco’s Dictatorship – Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano
3.    The Golden Stag Festival in Ceausescu’s Romania (1968-1971) – Alexandru Matei
4.    Comunicar Europa/Communicating Europe. Spain and television co-productions – Manuel Palacio & Concepción Cascajosa
5.    Zen and the Art of Adaptation – Jeremy Strong


1.    Live from Moscow: The Celebrations of Yuri Gagarin and Transnational Television in Europe – Lars Lundgren
2.    Reading Between The Lines. A Transnational History of the Franco-British Entente Cordial in Post War Television – Andreas Fickers & Andy O’Dwyer
3.    Transnational Relations Between The BBC And The WDR (1960-1969): The Central Roles Of Hugh Greene And Klaus Von Bismarck – Christian Potschka
4.    Poland’s Return to Europe:  Polish Terrestrial Broadcasters and TV-Fiction – Sylwia Szostak
5.    Hello, Lenin? Soviet Nostalgia on Post-Soviet Television – Kateryna Khinkulova
6.    From European Identity and Media Imperialism to Public Diplomacy: the Changing Rationale behind Euronews – Eva Polonska-Kimunguyi & Patrick Kimunguyi
7.    Télé-clubs and European Television History Beyond the Screen – Ira Wagman

As Dr. Dana Mustata from the University of Groningen, managing editor of the journal, says: “After the book A European Television History by Jonathan Bignell and Andreas Fickers, this issue on Europe on and behind the Screen is the second concerted effort on an European scale dedicated to advancing our understanding of European television.”

View, the Journal of European Television History and Culture, is published by the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision in collaboration with Utrecht University, Maastricht University and Royal Holloway University of London. With its interdisciplinary profile, the journal journal is open to many disciplinary perspectives on European television – including television history, media studies, media sociology, cultural studies and television studies. Read more about the journal.

More info

View is made possible by support from the EUscreen project and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The journal works in partnership with the European Television History Network.


EUscreen releases Online Exhibitions

The EUscreen collection includes thousands of items. To help users get the most from the EUscreen material, researchers, experts and members of its partner broadcasters and audiovisual archives have created a series of online exhibitions. These exhibitions cover historical events, political debates and everyday life in Europe.

The current release, visible at, brings online 10 different exhibitions, some of which are divided into subchapters or strands. The exhibitions are created by archivists, researchers, and enthusiasts.

These inter-archival exhibitions add new meaning to a wonderful collection of unique television materials and make them accessible to a different and larger audience; soon, visitors will be able to create their own stories and add more connections between the richness of 60 years of television history in Europe. Expert knowledge and a fascinating range of materials combine to offer exciting exhibitions on a wide range of subjects. A fine example of such an exhibition is the exhibition Being European, which brings together source materials from providers across the continent and is divided in multiple strands that showcase what European culture and identity may signify.

The tools designed for these exhibitions allow for the insertion of multimedia materials from all the project’s content providers and link back to the original items on the site, where users can find out more about them, share the links or get in touch with the providers themselves. Many more exhibitions will become available over the next couple of months and EUscreen is working hard to get the tools ready for everyone to start creating their own exhibitions.





EUscreen releases open access Journal of European Television History and Culture

Today, the EUscreen project releases the first peer-reviewed, multi-media and open access e-journal in the field of European television history and culture. The aim of this e-journal is to provide an international platform for outstanding research and reflection on television as an important part of our European cultural heritage.

The Journal of European Television History and Culture builds on recent digitisation initiatives in European archives and audiovisual libraries and addresses the need for critical study of the cultural, social and political role of television in Europe’s past and presence with the help of television material that has now become available at a large scale.

The first issue of the journal is a prototype, created in the open access publishing platform Open Journal Systems. The second version, due to appear in September 2012, will add important technical functionalities that will turn it into a true multimedia platform for online storytelling.

The Journal of European Television History and Culture has the ambition to speak to both the academic and the professional community but will address a larger audience interested in television as a cultural phenomenon, says Sonja de Leeuw, EUscreen’s project coordinator and editor-in-chief of the journal.

Broadcast historians, media studies scholars, audiovisual archivists, television professionals as well as the large group of enthusiastic fans of “old” television will have the opportunity to dive into the history and presence of European television by means of multi-media texts.

The journal is the result of a cooperation between the EUscreen platform and researchers from the European Television History Network (ETHN), which was launched in 2004 to promote a transnational perspective on the history and culture of television in Europe. It is published by the Utrecht University Library (Igitur publishing) in collaboration with Utrecht University, Maastricht University and Royal Holloway College / University of London and will be continued with funding from the Dutch National Research Board.

Visit to dive into Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Making Sense of Digital Sources


From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to September 11

— Book announcement (language of the book: French)

Katharina Niemeyer
De la chute du mur de Berlin au 11 septembre 2001.
Le journal télévisé, les mémoires collectives et l’écriture de l’histoire.
Antipodes, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2011, 342p.

English title: From the fall of the Berlin wall to September 11. Television news, collective memories and writing of history

This book discusses the importance of television and television news in contemporary history telling and making, and also asks the question of collective memories. Concepts developed by philosophers of memory and history are linked and discussed with media theory; pointing out the temporal and visual implication of television news and the eternal, audiovisual game of the past, the present and the future. Two major televised events are analyzed: the fall of the Berlin wall and September 11 (as well as their commemorations). The results of the study show that television is a special history maker and teller as well as a creator of collectives memories. It is also an indicator and accelerator of social, political and cultural changes (aesthetics of television news trailers, visual design etc.) and … television remains an eternal challenger of media studies.



IAMHIST 2011 Conference Report

The 24th International conference on History and Media took place this year in Copenhagen on 6th-9th July. EUscreen was represented by Dr. Sian Barber from Royal Holloway and Berber Hagedoorn from Utrecht University, both of whom delivered papers in the same panel at the conference. The theme of the conference was Media History and Cultural Memory and some of the papers given over the course of this four day event were particularly relevant to EUscreen.

IAMHIST report by Dr. Sian Barber & Berber Hagedoorn, MA.

The roundtable discussion which began the conference included representatives from the Imperial War Museum in London, the Holocaust Museum in Washington and the Danish Film Institute. Thomas Christensen from the Danish Film Institute discussed their current programme of digitisation and how their data is to be aggregated with Europeana. He highlighted the challenges of digitisation and the impact such processes have upon the original collections, for example the tensions between the contextualisation of content and the need for preservation. He also referred in passing to projects including EUscreen and the European Film Gateway as conducting similar kind of work.

Raye Farr from theHolocaust museum in Washington spoke about the way in which visitors engage with the museum collections and suggested the complexities for both live museums and online museum environments in meeting visitor and user needs. This is particularly relevant to the development of the Comparative Virtual Exhibitions within EUscreen, which will offer a unique user experience but will need to offer a coherent and simple narrative while at the same time addressing the diversity of material involved. She suggested that the role of museums is to preserve memory but wondered to what extent that could happen online and how the contested issues and boundaries of memory could be adequately addressed.

One of the most interesting papers was the presentation given about the Danish LARM Audio Research Archive. Bente Larsen from the University of Copenhagen is the project manger for this ambitious project which aims to place 1 million hours of Danish radio material online, covering 114 years of audio recording. This newly created digital archive faces many of the same issues as EUscreen – including issues of copyright, streaming and of providing access to cultural heritage. LARM aims to create a user-focused infrastructure which will benefit students and researchers and provide access to this material, but as yet it can only be accessed by users from within Denmark.

In the same panel, Heidi Svømmekjær (Roskilde University) was also discussing radio and in particular the problems and possibilities for re-entering the absent ‘object’ in the (digital) archive. Her case study was The Hansen Family, a programme that was broadcast from 1929 to 1949, of which 2-3 episodes out of 900 episodes remain. Svømmekjær notably drew upon the work of Antoinette M. Burton, Archive stories: facts, fictions, and the writing of history to address the methodological challenges of dealing with missing radio recordings and how the missing object could be reinstalled within the archive when only the basic metadata remains.

The history project based on the British broadcasting trade union BECTU was the focus of the paper given by Andrew Dawson (University of Greenwich). This paper focused on some important questions about conducting historical projects and the importance of oral history. Dawson highlighted the importance of drawing on a range of material to explore the work of the film industry, rather than simply focusing on the recollections of a number of important individuals. He suggested that listening to authoritative and dominant voices can obscure the more detailed history which can emerge from a wider sample. Dawson also wondered about European broadcasters and if different organisations were conducting similar projects about their own film and television industries which draw on oral history.

From EUscreen partner Utrecht University, Berber Hagedoorn presented on Dutch Multi-Platform Television as a Practice of History and Memory. By means of a case analysis of two Dutch cross-media projects, the documentary series In Europa (In Europe) and the youth documentary series 13 in de Oorlog (13 in the War), Hagedoorn discussed the integration and adaptation of television’s past and audiovisual archive materials in a new context of television itself. This challenges the dominant conception that television is a disposable practice incapable of memory. Hagedoorn’s research deals with archival materials from the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision.

Sian Barber, (Royal Holloway, University of London) presented on the methodological challenges posed by the EUscreen project. In a paper entitled Whose Archive, Whose History? Barber suggested that any online visual material needs to be adequately contextualized in order to give the most detailed understanding possible to end users. Barber emphasized the need for a ‘digital historiography’ to help users, in particular students, develop skills in ‘reading’ online material as historical sources. Portals such as EUscreen offer a great deal of material to the users but unless they interrogate the material carefully and fully understand what kind of material it is, then it will be of limited use to them. Barber outlined what the EUscreen project was doing to contextualise material on the portal and how this was achieved through the content selection strategy, virtual exhibitions and detailed metadata.

This four day event was a great opportunity to disseminate information about the EUscreen project and to hear about other projects which have interesting convergences with our own work.

ERT becomes an associate partner in EUscreen

Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi (ERT), the Greek state broadcasting company has committed itself to EUscreen by becoming an associate partner. The audiovisual archive of ERT will contribute some of their rich content from Greek television. ERT is the second content provider from Greece, the other one, the Hellenic National Audiovisual Archive is a consortium partner of EUscreen. Together they provide access to the audiovisual treasures of Greece.

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